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What are the four major domains of the Earth? Name them.

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The four major domains of the Earth are:

  1. Lithosphere
  2. Hydrosphere
  3. Atmosphere
  4. Biosphere

1. Lithosphere - The Earth's outer solid & most rigid part is called lithosphere. It is made up of the crust and the upper mantle. It is the coolest part of earth, extending to a depth of about 100 km from Earth's surface.

2. Hydrosphere - Hydrosphere is the total amount of water in the world. The hydrosphere contains the water of the planet (oceans, lakes, and rivers), underground (groundwater, springs and rivers), and in the air. Its thickness ranges from 10 Km to 20 Km.

3. Atmosphere - The atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the earth. It is held by the force of the earth's gravitation. The earth's atmosphere is made up of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.9% argon, and 0.1% other gases. Earth's atmosphere is about 480 km thick.

4. Biosphere - The Biosphere is a global ecosystem consisting of living and non-living things. It is also known as the ecosphere. It is approximately 20 kilometers from the top to bottom, with almost all life spanning about 500 meters below sea level to 6 km above sea level. Its existence dates backs to about 3.5 billion years.

Information source:, National geographic, wikipedia

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